Spatial ALD for next-generation battery design

Efficient and safe energy storage in the form of batteries is paramount for the energy transition. Global demand for Li-ion batteries will rise beyond 2000 GWh by 2030.

This would mark a 954% increase over current demand as measured in gigawatt-hours (BNEF, 2022).

This imposes challenging requirements for future Li-ion batteries, such as >2x higher energy density:

  • >6x shorter charging time;
  • >3x better charging stability;
  • >8x increase in production volume at a more than 2x reduced production costs.
next generation batteries

New materials and concepts

These requirement can be realized by using new battery materials like high-voltage and high energy cathode materials (e.g. HE-NMC and HV-spinel), high capacity anodes (e.g. Si and Li metal) and solid state electrolytes.

In addition, new battery concepts like all solid-state and 3D batteries will further improve energy density and charging time. The use of these new materials comes at a cost, however.

High-energy cathode materials are very reactive which leads to chemical degradation. High-capacity anode materials swell and shrink leading to mechanical degradation, while dendrite formation on lithium electrodes leads to electrical degradation. All this combined will lead to too low cycling stability and a lifespan that is too short.

cost saving in battery production
thin film application


Spatial ALD can be used to apply thin passivating and stabilizing films at the various battery interfaces, for example:

  • Performance enhancing and protective coatings inside porous cathodes and anodes.
  • Interface passivation in solid state batteries.
  • Passivation of lithium electrode to prevent dendrite formation.
  • Roll-to-Roll processing; high speed and low-cost, < 0,4€/m2.

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